Spring Bean的生命周期

文章目录
  1. 1. 生命周期时序图
  2. 2. 接口方法分类
  3. 3. 演示

Spring作为当前Java最流行、最强大的轻量级框架,受到了程序员的热烈欢迎。

准确的了解Spring Bean的生命周期是非常必要的。我们通常使用ApplicationContext作为Spring容器。这里,我们讲的也是 ApplicationContext中Bean的生命周期。而实际上BeanFactory也是差不多的,只不过处理器需要手动注册。

生命周期时序图

Spring Bean的完整生命周期从创建Spring容器开始,直到最终Spring容器销毁Bean,这其中包含了一系列关键点。

接口方法分类

Bean的完整生命周期经历了各种方法调用,这些方法可以划分为以下几类:

  1. Bean自身的方法:这个包括了Bean本身调用的方法和通过配置文件中init-methoddestroy-method指定的方法
  2. Bean级生命周期接口方法:这个包括了BeanNameAwareBeanFactoryAwareInitializingBeanDiposableBean这些接口的方法
  3. 容器级生命周期接口方法:这个包括了InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorBeanPostProcessor 这两个接口实现,一般称它们的实现类为后处理器
  4. 工厂后处理器接口方法:这个包括了AspectJWeavingEnabler, ConfigurationClassPostProcessor, CustomAutowireConfigurer等等非常有用的工厂后处理器接口的方法,工厂后处理器也是容器级的,在应用上下文装配配置文件之后立即调用。

演示

我们用一个简单的Spring Bean来演示一下Spring Bean的生命周期。

  1. 首先是一个简单的Spring Bean,调用Bean自身的方法和Bean级生命周期接口方法,为了方便演示,它实现了BeanNameAware、BeanFactoryAware、InitializingBean和DiposableBean这4个接口,同时有2个方法,对应配置文件中的init-method和destroy-method。如下:
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package springBeanTest;

import org.springframework.beans.BeansException;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanFactoryAware;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanNameAware;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.DisposableBean;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.InitializingBean;

/**
* @author qsk
*/
public class Person implements BeanFactoryAware, BeanNameAware,
InitializingBean, DisposableBean {

private String name;
private String address;
private int phone;

private BeanFactory beanFactory;
private String beanName;

public Person() {
System.out.println("【构造器】调用Person的构造器实例化");
}

public String getName() {
return name;
}

public void setName(String name) {
System.out.println("【注入属性】注入属性name");
this.name = name;
}

public String getAddress() {
return address;
}

public void setAddress(String address) {
System.out.println("【注入属性】注入属性address");
this.address = address;
}

public int getPhone() {
return phone;
}

public void setPhone(int phone) {
System.out.println("【注入属性】注入属性phone");
this.phone = phone;
}

@Override
public String toString() {
return "Person [address=" + address + ", name=" + name + ", phone="
+ phone + "]";
}

// 这是BeanFactoryAware接口方法
@Override
public void setBeanFactory(BeanFactory arg0) throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("【BeanFactoryAware接口】调用BeanFactoryAware.setBeanFactory()");
this.beanFactory = arg0;
}

// 这是BeanNameAware接口方法
@Override
public void setBeanName(String arg0) {
System.out.println("【BeanNameAware接口】调用BeanNameAware.setBeanName()");
this.beanName = arg0;
}

// 这是InitializingBean接口方法
@Override
public void afterPropertiesSet() throws Exception {
System.out
.println("【InitializingBean接口】调用InitializingBean.afterPropertiesSet()");
}

// 这是DiposibleBean接口方法
@Override
public void destroy() throws Exception {
System.out.println("【DiposibleBean接口】调用DiposibleBean.destory()");
}

// 通过<bean>的init-method属性指定的初始化方法
public void myInit() {
System.out.println("【init-method】调用<bean>的init-method属性指定的初始化方法");
}

// 通过<bean>的destroy-method属性指定的初始化方法
public void myDestory() {
System.out.println("【destroy-method】调用<bean>的destroy-method属性指定的初始化方法");
}
}

2、接下来是演示BeanPostProcessor接口的方法,如下:

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package springBeanTest;

import org.springframework.beans.BeansException;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.config.BeanPostProcessor;

public class MyBeanPostProcessor implements BeanPostProcessor {

public MyBeanPostProcessor() {
super();
System.out.println("这是BeanPostProcessor实现类构造器!!");
// TODO Auto-generated constructor stub
}

@Override
public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object arg0, String arg1)
throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("BeanPostProcessor接口方法postProcessAfterInitialization对属性进行更改!");
return arg0;
}

@Override
public Object postProcessBeforeInitialization(Object arg0, String arg1)
throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("BeanPostProcessor接口方法postProcessBeforeInitialization对属性进行更改!");
return arg0;
}
}

如上,BeanPostProcessor接口包括2个方法postProcessAfterInitialization和postProcessBeforeInitialization,这两个方法的第一个参数都是要处理的Bean对象,第二个参数都是Bean的name。返回值也都是要处理的Bean对象。这里要注意。

  1. InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor 接口本质是BeanPostProcessor的子接口,一般我们继承Spring为其提供的适配器类InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor Adapter来使用它,如下:
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package springBeanTest;

import java.beans.PropertyDescriptor;

import org.springframework.beans.BeansException;
import org.springframework.beans.PropertyValues;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.config.InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorAdapter;

public class MyInstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor extends
InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorAdapter {

public MyInstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor() {
super();
System.out
.println("这是InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorAdapter实现类构造器!!");
}

// 接口方法、实例化Bean之前调用
@Override
public Object postProcessBeforeInstantiation(Class beanClass,
String beanName) throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor调用postProcessBeforeInstantiation方法");
return null;
}

// 接口方法、实例化Bean之后调用
@Override
public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object bean, String beanName)
throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor调用postProcessAfterInitialization方法");
return bean;
}

// 接口方法、设置某个属性时调用
@Override
public PropertyValues postProcessPropertyValues(PropertyValues pvs,
PropertyDescriptor[] pds, Object bean, String beanName)
throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor调用postProcessPropertyValues方法");
return pvs;
}
}

这个有3个方法,其中第二个方法postProcessAfterInitialization就是重写了BeanPostProcessor的方法。第三个方法postProcessPropertyValues用来操作属性,返回值也应该是PropertyValues对象。

  1. 演示工厂后处理器接口方法,如下:
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package springBeanTest;

import org.springframework.beans.BeansException;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.config.BeanDefinition;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.config.BeanFactoryPostProcessor;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.config.ConfigurableListableBeanFactory;

public class MyBeanFactoryPostProcessor implements BeanFactoryPostProcessor {

public MyBeanFactoryPostProcessor() {
super();
System.out.println("这是BeanFactoryPostProcessor实现类构造器!!");
}

@Override
public void postProcessBeanFactory(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory arg0)
throws BeansException {
System.out
.println("BeanFactoryPostProcessor调用postProcessBeanFactory方法");
BeanDefinition bd = arg0.getBeanDefinition("person");
bd.getPropertyValues().addPropertyValue("phone", "110");
}

}
  1. 配置文件如下beans.xml,很简单,使用ApplicationContext,处理器不用手动注册:
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop" xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
xsi:schemaLocation="
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.2.xsd">

<bean id="beanPostProcessor" class="springBeanTest.MyBeanPostProcessor">
</bean>

<bean id="instantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor" class="springBeanTest.MyInstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor">
</bean>

<bean id="beanFactoryPostProcessor" class="springBeanTest.MyBeanFactoryPostProcessor">
</bean>

<bean id="person" class="springBeanTest.Person" init-method="myInit"
destroy-method="myDestory" scope="singleton" p:name="张三" p:address="广州"
p:phone="15900000000" />

</beans>
  1. 下面测试一下:
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package springBeanTest;

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;

public class BeanLifeCycle {

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println("现在开始初始化容器");

ApplicationContext factory = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("springBeanTest/beans.xml");
System.out.println("容器初始化成功");
//得到Preson,并使用
Person person = factory.getBean("person",Person.class);
System.out.println(person);

System.out.println("现在开始关闭容器!");
((ClassPathXmlApplicationContext)factory).registerShutdownHook();
}
}

关闭容器使用的实际是AbstractApplicationContext的钩子方法。

控制台输出:

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现在开始初始化容器
2014-5-18 15:46:20 org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext prepareRefresh
信息: Refreshing org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext@19a0c7c: startup date [Sun May 18 15:46:20 CST 2014]; root of context hierarchy
2014-5-18 15:46:20 org.springframework.beans.factory.xml.XmlBeanDefinitionReader loadBeanDefinitions
信息: Loading XML bean definitions from class path resource [springBeanTest/beans.xml]
这是BeanFactoryPostProcessor实现类构造器!!
BeanFactoryPostProcessor调用postProcessBeanFactory方法
这是BeanPostProcessor实现类构造器!!
这是InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessorAdapter实现类构造器!!
2014-5-18 15:46:20 org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory preInstantiateSingletons
信息: Pre-instantiating singletons in org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory@9934d4: defining beans [beanPostProcessor,instantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor,beanFactoryPostProcessor,person]; root of factory hierarchy
InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor调用postProcessBeforeInstantiation方法
【构造器】调用Person的构造器实例化
InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor调用postProcessPropertyValues方法
【注入属性】注入属性address
【注入属性】注入属性name
【注入属性】注入属性phone
【BeanNameAware接口】调用BeanNameAware.setBeanName()
【BeanFactoryAware接口】调用BeanFactoryAware.setBeanFactory()
BeanPostProcessor接口方法postProcessBeforeInitialization对属性进行更改!
【InitializingBean接口】调用InitializingBean.afterPropertiesSet()
【init-method】调用<bean>的init-method属性指定的初始化方法
BeanPostProcessor接口方法postProcessAfterInitialization对属性进行更改!
InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor调用postProcessAfterInitialization方法
容器初始化成功
Person [address=广州, name=张三, phone=110]
现在开始关闭容器!
【DiposibleBean接口】调用DiposibleBean.destory()
【destroy-method】调用<bean>的destroy-method属性指定的初始化方法